The Setif region boasts abundant wetlands, which serve as vital ecosystems harboring a significant and diverse avian biodiversity. This ecological richness holds both economic and ecological significance. Within the scope of our research, we undertook the task of conducting an extensive survey of aquatic bird populations and conducted an in-depth analysis of the avian fauna inhabiting the wetlands within the Setif area. This endeavor allowed us to compile a comprehensive inventory encompassing species observed during the period from 2019 to 2020. Our findings revealed the presence of an impressive total of 29,652 waterbirds, representing 32 distinct species distributed across 12 families. The most prominently represented families include Anatidae, Charadriidae, and Scolopacidae, along with Grebes, each exhibiting more than three species. These avian families exhibit a rich diversity in terms of diet, habitat preferences, and lifestyle. Moreover, our study identified a predominant trophic category, characterized by polyphagous feeding behavior, observed in 16 avian species, whereas 8 species were classified as consumers of invertebrates. Only one species fell into the alternative trophic category. These findings illuminate the intricate ecological dynamics within the study area, emphasizing the complex interplay between avian species and their ecological roles.