Color preference assay is a test for an animal’s innate and adaptive response to differentiate colors and can be used as an endpoint for psychoactive activity evaluation. Several color preference test methods in aquatic animals that can be used to perform behavioral screening have been established. However, the color preference test conditions have yet to be extensively studied and standardized in aquatic invertebrates. This study aimed to replicate and optimize the previously published method to evaluate the potential color preference in freshwater crayfish based on four different approaches: species, life stages, sex, and pharmaceutical exposure. Using the optimized setup, two crayfish species display color preferences to some specific colors. P. clarkii displays more dominant color preference behavior than C. quadricarinatus in terms of color preference ranking and index. P. clarkii prefers the red color compared to other colors (red > green > blue > yellow), while C. quadricarinatus dislikes yellow compared to other colors (blue = green = red > yellow). Since P. clarkii has a more obvious color index ranking and several advantages compared to C. quadricarinatus, we conducted further tests using P. clarkii as an animal model. In the juvenile and adult stages of P. clarkii, they prefer red and avoid yellow. However, the juvenile one did not display a strong color preference like the adult one. Different sex of crayfish displayed no significant differences in their color preference responses. In addition, we also evaluated the potential effect of the antidepressant sertraline on color preference in P. clarkii and found that waterborne antidepressant exposure can significantly alter their color preference. This fundamental information collected from this study supports the crayfish color preference test as a good behavioral test to address environmental pollution.