The great economic importance of sugar beet determines the ongoing biotechnological studies conducted worldwide to improve the technology of obtaining doubled haploids (DHs) using the method of unpollinated ovule culture in vitro. To improve the induction of gynogenesis, we tested the effect of thidiazuron (TDZ), temperature bud pretreatment, different concentrations of sucrose, and culturing on liquid or solid medium. Three genotypes were tested in this study. The use of TDZ at a concentration of 0.4 mg/L in solid IMB (induction medium for Beta vulgaris) induction nutrient medium with 3 g/L phytagel, 50 g/L sucrose, 200 mg/L ampicillin and cultivation at 28◦C in the dark produced up to 16.7% induced ovules. The liquid nutrient medium of the same composition induced up to 8% ovules. Increasing TDZ concentration to 0.8 mg/L resulted in reduction or total inhibition of gynogenesis, depending on the genotype. Reducing the sucrose concentration to 20 g/L or increasing it to 80 g/L was not effective. In all three genotypes, the absence of temperature pretreatment of buds (5–6 °C) showed the best results. The plant regeneration with MS nutrient medium of 20 g/L sucrose, 3 g/L phytagel, 1 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg/L gibberellic acid (GA3) resulted in up to seven shoots from one induced ovule in the most responsive genotype. We showed by flow cytometry, chromosome counting and chloroplast number assessment that all regenerant plants were haploid (2n = x = 9).