Nicotiana tabacum solanesyl diphosphate synthase 1 (NtSPS1) is the key enzyme in solanesol biosynthesis. However, changes in the solanesol content, plant growth, photosynthesis, and metabolome of tobacco plants after NtSPS1 overexpression (OE) have not been previously reported. In the present study, these parameters, as well as photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, were compared between NtSPS1 OE and wild type (WT) lines of tobacco. As expected, NtSPS1 OE significantly increased solanesol content in tobacco leaves. Although NtSPS1 OE significantly increased leaf growth, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll content, the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in the leaves of the NtSPS1 OE lines were only slightly higher than those in the WT leaves. Furthermore, NtSPS1 OE resulted in 64 differential metabolites, including 30 up-regulated and 34 down-regulated metabolites, between the OE and WT leaves. Pathway enrichment analysis of these differential metabolites identified differentially enriched pathways between the OE and WT leaves, e.g., carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. The maximum carboxylation rate of RuBisCO and the maximum rate of RuBP regeneration were also elevated in the NtSPS1 OE line. To our knowledge, this is the first study to confirm the role of NtSPS1 in solanesol biosynthesis and its possible functional mechanisms in tobacco.