In order to investigate the effects of aging methods on microorganisms and aroma components in tobacco leaves, the differences in microbial diversity and aroma components of Zimbabwe tobacco leaves aged for different durations (3, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months) in different aging warehouses (moisturizing warehouse, mechanical warehouse and natural warehouse) were analyzed by MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that: 1) The species composition similarity was higher among the leaves aged for 3, 9, and 12 months in the same aging warehouse, but the species composition of the leaves in different aging warehouses differed greatly. 2) At phylum and genus levels, both aging duration and aging warehouse had certain influences on the relative abundance of colonies. After aging for 18 months in the mechanical warehouse, the total abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and the total relative abundance of Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Sphingomonas, Arthrobacter and Methylobacterium reached their maxima. 3) The functional prediction indicated that there were 7 types of metabolic pathways in the primary functional layer, and the bacteria involved in metabolism were dominant. 4) There were 41 metabolic pathways in the secondary functional layer, the relative abundance of bacteria involved in membrane transport, energy metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism was higher. After aging for 18 months in the mechanical warehouse, the bacteria involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism had higher relative abundance. 5) With the proceeding of aging treatments, the contents of alcohols and ketones arom components, neophytadiene and the total contents of aroma components in tobacco leaves increased gradually, and the total contents of aroma components in tobacco leaves aged in the mechanical warehouse were higher than those in the moisturizing warehouse and natural warehouse.